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Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

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Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

A written program developed and implemented by an employer designating proceedures, equipment, personal protective equipment, and work practices that are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals usid in that particular workplace.

Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Phenol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an [OH] group bound to an aromatic raing.

 

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.