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Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

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Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.