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The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

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Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

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Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

A brief history of dyeing fabrics

 Dyeing fabrics is giving the fibers a homogeneous color that has a certain degree of strength. The methods of dyeing are very diverse, depending on the properties of the dyes and the dyed fibers.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Stereoisomers

Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.