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Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

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Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Hydrogen

Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.