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Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

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Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Nuclides

Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.