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A colorless, nonvolatile solid, XeO3, explosive when dry: in solution it is called xenic acid.

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Dumas Method

A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Helium

Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Collision Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.

Iron

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations.

Origin : The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon ‘iren’, and the symbol from the Latin ‘ferrum’, meaning iron.
Description :Iron is an enigma - it rusts easily and yet is the most important of all metals, world production exceeds 700 million tons a year. Small amounts of carbon are added to iron to produce steel and when chromium.
is added to this, the result is non-corroding stainless steel (small amounts of nickel may also be added). Iron is also an essential element for all forms of life. The average human contains about 4 grams, much of which circulates as haemoglobin in the blood, the job of which is to carry oxygen from our lungs to where it is needed. If the diet does not contain 10 milligrams a day, anaemia will eventually develop. Foods such as liver, kidney, molasses, brewer’s yeast, cocoa and liquorice contain a lot of iron.
Atomic No:26 Mass No:56

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H