Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.
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In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
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It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...
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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Reaction of a substance with water.
Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)
The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.
A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.
Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).
A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.
A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.
Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.
A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.
Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.
The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.
In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.
The solute-like species in a colloid.
A salt containing an ionizable OH group.
Le Chatelier's Principle
States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.
A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.
The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.
Crystal Lattice Energy
Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.
A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.