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Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

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Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Acid

A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Neutron

A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Basic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable OH group.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.