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The solid form of mixed uranium oxide, which is produced from uranium ore in the uranium recovery (milling) process.

The material is a mixture of uranium oxides, which can vary in proportion and color from yellow to orange to dark green (blackish) depending on the temperature at which the material is dried (which affects the level of hydration and impurities), with higher drying temperatures producing a darker and less soluble material.

Yellowcake was commonly referred to as U3O8, because that chemical compound historically comprised the majority of the yellowcake produced by uranium recovery facilities utilizing conventional milling methods.

Most modern uranium recovery facilities utilize in situ recovery methods and produce a yellowish compound comprised mostly of uranyl peroxide dihydrate. This material is then transported to a uranium conversion facility, where it is transformed into uranium hexafluoride (UF6), in preparation for fabricating fuel for nuclear reactors.

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Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Ion

An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

Molecular Weight

The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.