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An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

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  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...



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Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Native State

Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.

 

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Eluant or eluent

The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.

 

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.