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The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...



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Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Binary Compound

A compound consisting of two elements, may be ionic or covalent.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.