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The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

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Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

xylene

Any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, C8H10, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.