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A helium nucleus.

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  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

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    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

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Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4: colorless, oily liquid, boiling point 330C. A 96 percent solution is used in the laboratory.

Fire Hazard: This is a very powerful, acidic oxidizer which can Ignite or even explode on contact with many materials, i.e. acetic acid ,acetone+ HNOs, alcohols, + H202, NH4OH, HCL, NaOH, and others.

Sulfuric acid has a wide range of uses and plays a part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.

Heavy Water

Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Corrosion

Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Saccharic

of or derived from saccharin or a saccharine substance.

 

Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.