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The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

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  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...



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Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Monoprotic Acid

Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.