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The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

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    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

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    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.



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Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Galvanizing

Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.