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A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

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Ideal Gas

A hypothetical gas that obeys exactly all postulates of the kinetic-molecular theory.

 

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula)

Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).