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A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

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Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.