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A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

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Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Flash Point

The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.

Acidic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom. Acidic salt does not necessarily produce acidic solutions.

Fast Neutron

A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.