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A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

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Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.