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A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

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Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Inner Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Amphoterism

The ability to react with both acids and bases.Ability of substance to act as either an acid or a base.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.