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A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

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  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.



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Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Salt and its use in everyday life

Cooking salt is a product that is available in every kitchen, and it’s not as simple as it seems. The history of this product shows that it was valued like gold.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.