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A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

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Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Heteronuclear

Consisting of different elements.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.