Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
- Chemical Safety
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- Harmful Chemicals Found In Food
It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.
The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.
Primary Voltaic Cells
Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.
Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.
A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.
Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)
Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).
Third Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.
Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.
A change in which one or more new substances are formed.
A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.
Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.
Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.
Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an element, Z is its atomic number, and A is its mass number.
Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption spectrum, represents the energy difference between two energy levels.
The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.
High Spin Complex
Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.
A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.
A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.