Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.
Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell
Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.
CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.
The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.
Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.
An area that may be used for work with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such as a laboratory hood.
Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.
An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.
Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.
A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.
The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.
A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.
A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.
The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.
Consisting of different elements.
Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.
The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.
The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.
Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.