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Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

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Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.