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Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

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Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.