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Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

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Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Heavy Water

Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.