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A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...



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Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Gas of rotten eggs

If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.