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Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

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Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Cis-

The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Inner Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.