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Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

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Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.