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Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

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Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Silicones

Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.