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Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

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Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Polyene

A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.