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Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

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    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.