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Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

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Native State

Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.

 

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.