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The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

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Polymer

A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Combustible

Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.

 

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.