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The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

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Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.