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The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

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Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.