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The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

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Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.