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Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

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Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Ideal Gas

A hypothetical gas that obeys exactly all postulates of the kinetic-molecular theory.

 

Deposition

The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Ternary Acid

A ternary compound containing H, O, and another element, often a nonmetal.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.