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Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

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Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Explosive limits

The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.

Linear Accelerator

A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Equivalence Point

The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.

Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.