Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
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People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.
Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.
The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.
A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.
Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.
An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.
A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.
Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.
The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.
Valence Bond Theory
Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.
Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.
Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.
The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.
A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.
A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.
Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.
Percent by Mass
100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.
Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.
Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.
Rate of Reaction
Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.