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Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

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    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

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Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

Bronsted-Lowry Base

A proton acceptor

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Linear Accelerator

A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.