Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.
- Chemical Safety
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.
An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.
Free Energy Change
The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.
Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.
A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.
The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.
The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.
The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.
A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.
A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.
The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.
A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.
The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.
The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.
Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.
The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.
Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).
A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.
Primary Voltaic Cells
Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.
Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy
The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.