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Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.

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Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Linear Accelerator

A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Percent Purity

The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.