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An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

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Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Actual Yield

Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Fatty Acids

An aliphatic acid, many can obtained from animal fats.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.



Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.


Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.


The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.