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An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

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Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Fatty Acids

An aliphatic acid, many can obtained from animal fats.


A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.


To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.


A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.