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Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.

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D -Transition elements (metals)

B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table, sometimes called simply transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti .
For further information see Metals.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.


A device used to measure optical activity.


Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.


The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.


Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.