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An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

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Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.


The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.



Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.


A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.