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An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

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Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Actual Yield

Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield.

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.