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Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

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Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.


A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Equivalent Weight

An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.