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Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

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Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO)

A person or employee who is qualified by training or experience to provide technical guidance in the development and implementations of the provisions of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

Ether

Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.