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Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

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Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.