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Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

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Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Strong Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.

 

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

xenon

A heavy, colorless, chemically inactive, monatomic gaseous element used for filling radio, television, and luminescent tubes. Symbol: Xe, at. wt.: 131.30, at. no.: 54.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.

 

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.