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Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

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Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).