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The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

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Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Flux

A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.