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Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

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Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.

 

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Capillary

A tube having a very small inside diameter.