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Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

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Polyene

A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Fast Neutron

A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.