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Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

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Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.