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Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

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Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Heat of Condensation

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.