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The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

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yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Galvanizing

Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.