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The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...



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Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to which one is healthy or not and which produces the best results. There is one thing that almost every can agree on. That being high sugar and caffeine products like sodas are not good for you, but those are not the only dangers found in food and beverages.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.