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The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

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Acidic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom. Acidic salt does not necessarily produce acidic solutions.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.