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A device used to measure optical activity.

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  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

  • Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...



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Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Salt and its use in everyday life

Cooking salt is a product that is available in every kitchen, and it’s not as simple as it seems. The history of this product shows that it was valued like gold.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Combustible

Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.