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Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.

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Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Dumas Method

A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.