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Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

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Ion

An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Dumas Method

A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.

Compound

A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Electrolysis

Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4: colorless, oily liquid, boiling point 330C. A 96 percent solution is used in the laboratory.

Fire Hazard: This is a very powerful, acidic oxidizer which can Ignite or even explode on contact with many materials, i.e. acetic acid ,acetone+ HNOs, alcohols, + H202, NH4OH, HCL, NaOH, and others.

Sulfuric acid has a wide range of uses and plays a part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.