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A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

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Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.