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A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

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Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.