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A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

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Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.