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A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

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Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Interesting facts about metals

Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Derivative

A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.