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Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

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Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

A brief history of dyeing fabrics

 Dyeing fabrics is giving the fibers a homogeneous color that has a certain degree of strength. The methods of dyeing are very diverse, depending on the properties of the dyes and the dyed fibers.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.