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Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

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Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.

Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Iron

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations.

Origin : The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon ‘iren’, and the symbol from the Latin ‘ferrum’, meaning iron.
Description :Iron is an enigma - it rusts easily and yet is the most important of all metals, world production exceeds 700 million tons a year. Small amounts of carbon are added to iron to produce steel and when chromium.
is added to this, the result is non-corroding stainless steel (small amounts of nickel may also be added). Iron is also an essential element for all forms of life. The average human contains about 4 grams, much of which circulates as haemoglobin in the blood, the job of which is to carry oxygen from our lungs to where it is needed. If the diet does not contain 10 milligrams a day, anaemia will eventually develop. Foods such as liver, kidney, molasses, brewer’s yeast, cocoa and liquorice contain a lot of iron.
Atomic No:26 Mass No:56