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A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

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Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Helium

Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

The most expensive metal in the world

Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Bubbles

Have you ever noticed that soap bubbles go up in winter and fall down in summer? The reason is that warm air is lighter than cold. And in winter the difference between the air temperature in the room (especially near the windows) and the one you exhale into the bubble is enough to overcome the heaviness of its shell.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.