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A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

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Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Salicylate

A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Amide

Compound containing the O-C-N group.Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.

 

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.