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A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

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Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Percent Purity

The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Dumas Method

A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.

Ozone

We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Saccharate

A compound formed by interaction of sucrose with a metallic oxide, usually lime, and useful in the purification of sugar.

 

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.