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Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

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Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Ion

An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.