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A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

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Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Ideal Gas

A hypothetical gas that obeys exactly all postulates of the kinetic-molecular theory.

 

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.