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A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

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Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Binary Compound

A compound consisting of two elements, may be ionic or covalent.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.