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A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

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Faraday

One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Polyene

A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.