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A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

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Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Acid

A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Binary Compound

A compound consisting of two elements, may be ionic or covalent.