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A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

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Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.