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A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

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Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.