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A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

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Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Creating Malachite egg

One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but effective and visual, and as a result we will get something beautiful.


An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.


The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Three ways to make patina at home

The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.