A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.
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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
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People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
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Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)
Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.
A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.
An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.
A proton donor.
The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.
Crystal Field Theory
Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.
The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.
A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.
Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.
Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.
Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.
Band of Stability
Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.
Positively charged or electron-deficient.
A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.
A salt or ester of salicylic acid.
A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.
Heat of Crystallization
The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.
A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.