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The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.

 

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Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

History of diamonds

Diamond has been known for about 5 thousand years. Historians suggest that it was first discovered in India in river placers. It has long been credited with magical properties, and the largest famous crystals and products from them are shrouded in a halo of mystical legends.