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An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

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Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Oil

Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.