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An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

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Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.