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The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

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Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Continuous Spectrum

Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

xenon hexafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF6, that melts at 50°C to a yellow liquid, and boils at 75°C.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.