The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances
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Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)
Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.
The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.
Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.
Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.
An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.
A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.
An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.
Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.
Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.
A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.
Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.
Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.
A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.
A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.
Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.
A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.
An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.