An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.
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Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.
Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.
Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.
Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a chromatographic column and removes the sample components from the stationary phase.
A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.
A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.
The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.
A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.
A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.
In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.
The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base.
Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.
Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.
The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.
At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.
Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.
Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.
Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.
An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.