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An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

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Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Polydentate

Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.