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An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

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Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Eluate

Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a chromatographic column and removes the sample components from the stationary phase.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Acid

A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Basic Anhydride

The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base.

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.