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Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

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Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Ternary Acid

A ternary compound containing H, O, and another element, often a nonmetal.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.