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Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

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K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Yellowcake

The solid form of mixed uranium oxide, which is produced from uranium ore in the uranium recovery (milling) process.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.