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Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

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Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.