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Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

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Ideal Gas

A hypothetical gas that obeys exactly all postulates of the kinetic-molecular theory.

 

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.