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Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

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Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Solubility Product Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissolution of a slightly soluble compound.

Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Fast Neutron

A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.