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Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

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Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.