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A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

High Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.