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A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

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Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.