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Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

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Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Equivalence Point

The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.