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The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

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Mechanism

The sequence of steps by which reactants are converted into products.

What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry.

As these quality standards become stricter, beverage producers are increasingly called upon to get products to market faster using fewer resources, while simultaneously managing ingredient quality, and ultimately, risk.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.