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The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

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Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Electron Affinity

The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Mechanism

The sequence of steps by which reactants are converted into products.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.