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The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

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Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Secondary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that can be recharged, original reactanats can be regenerated be reversing the direction of the current flow.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.