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Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

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Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.

Diamonds Are Forever

Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.