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Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

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Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.