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Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Latest Articles

  • Interesting facts about metals

    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.



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Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Ternary Acid

A ternary compound containing H, O, and another element, often a nonmetal.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Homogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.

Electrochemistry

Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

PseudobinaryIonic Compounds

Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.