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Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

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Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.