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Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

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Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.